Event: Jewish Nationalism in Eastern Europe
A wave of pogroms against Jews takes place in the Russian Empire. This leads Leon Pinsker to anonymously publish Auto-Emancipation, where he argues for raising Jewish national consciousness. Groups of Hovevei Zion (Lovers of Zion) are formed in Russia and elsewhere in Eastern Europe. They hold their first congress in Kattowitz (then Germany, today Poland) in 1884, establish a charitable society that supports Jewish farmers in Syria and Palestine, and elect Pinsker as its chairman.