VIII. Palestinian Defeat, Divisions And Survival

VIII. Palestinian Defeat, Divisions And Survival

Period
VIII. Palestinian Defeat, Divisions And Survival
25 May 1982 to 4 December 1987

During the period 1982–87, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) lost its base in Lebanon as a result of Israel’s invasion of this country in 1982. This was followed by a scission within Fatah, dissensions among organizations within the PLO, and a strategic shift by PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat in the direction of a negotiated settlement to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and a return to coordination with Egypt and Jordan. This policy did not lead to significant progress in the peace process, and Israel appeared in a strong position, both at the strategic regional level, and insofar as its settlement activity in the occupied territories was concerned.. By 1987, the main Palestinian organizations (except those dependent on Syria) had reconciled, while the fire was smoldering under the ashes in the occupied territories, on the eve of the outbreak of the first intifada at the end of 1987.

The March 1979 Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty removed the strategic threat of the Egyptian army from Israel’s southern front, thus freeing the government of Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and Defense Minister Ariel Sharon to use the Israeli army to destroy the PLO’s estimated 15,000–18,000 fighters in Lebanon. Crippling the Palestinian quasi-state in Lebanon (with its political and military leadership, its bureaucratic organs, and its military formations) would not only rid Israel’s northern border of a hostile force, but would weaken the PLO influence internationally, regionally, and in the occupied West Bank and Gaza, where Begin’s government was busy establishing Jewish settlements to maintain Israel’s hold on the areas.

A July 1981 Israeli-PLO cease-fire agreement engineered  by the American government had led to a brief period of peace along the Israeli-Lebanese border, but on 6 June 1982 the Israeli government used the attempted assassination in London of the Israeli ambassador by an anti-PLO Palestinian group as a pretext to launch an invasion of Lebanon. Originally claiming that Israel only wanted to advance 40 kilometers into Lebanon to clear a “security zone,” Sharon quickly ordered the Israeli army to advance toward the capital, Beirut. Ultimately, approximately 76,000 Israeli troops, and over 1,000 Israeli tanks, crossed into Lebanon. In addition to fierce fighting with PLO fighters and Lebanese militias allied with the PLO, the Israelis engaged in tank and air battles with Syrian forces that led to the loss of over eighty Syrian aircraft.

The Israelis quickly encircled West Beirut, site of the PLO’s headquarters, and laid siege to that part of the city throughout the summer, subjecting it to heavy and at times sustained bombardments from land, air, and sea. They made several attempts to enter West Beirut, but succeeded only in conquering open areas south of the city.  Eventually Arafat and the beleaguered PLO leadership agreed to evacuate under the terms of another American-brokered agreement that came into effect on 20 August 1982. Some 14,000 PLO fighters left the city under the protection of a multinational force consisting of French, Italian, and American soldiers, who also were supposed to guarantee the safety of Palestinian refugees in West Beirut. Arafat himself left by ship and eventually resettled in Tunis, where the PLO established its new headquarters.

Under the agreement, Israeli troops were not allowed to enter West Beirut. After the 14 September 1982 assassination of Lebanon’s president-elect, Bashir Gemayel, however, Israeli forces entered West Beirut and encircled the refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila. They allowed Phalangists (members of the militia that Gemayel had headed) and other anti-PLO Lebanese fighters into the camps, who then murdered around 1,500 Palestinian civilians. The UN condemned the massacre and an Israeli commission of inquiry determined that Sharon bore “personal responsibility” for the crime. Moreover, the massacre highlighted the vulnerability of Palestinian refugees in the absence of PLO forces.

As a result of the war, two peace plans emerged that were designed to offer a diplomatic path to negotiations on the Palestinian issue. The first was the Reagan Plan, announced on 1 September 1982 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan. It offered Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza, which eventually would be associated politically with Jordan. One week later, the Arab League announced the Fez Initiative. It was similar to the 7 August 1981 Fahd Plan, issued by Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd, which had called for establishment of a Palestinian state and implied Arab recognition of Israel in return.

Another consequence of the Lebanon war was strong dissension within the Palestinian national movement. A major rebellion broke out within Fatah that weakened Arafat’s influence within his own organization. In May 1983, Sa‘id Muragha (Abu Musa), a high-level Fatah military officer who had organized the defense of Beirut during the war, publicly criticized Arafat for his political positions, including his rapprochement with Jordan, his readiness to consider the Reagan Plan as a basis for negotiations, and his mismanagement of the affairs inside Fatah, such as promoting several undeserving Fatah officers. Soon, with support from Syria, fighters loyal to Abu Musa took over Fatah arms depots, and the rebellion within Fatah spread to include other Palestinian groups hostile to Arafat, including the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–General Command (PFLP-GC), led by Ahmad Jibril. Fighting then broke out between Arafat loyalists and Abu Musa’s fighters, who were referred to popularly as Fatah Uprising (Fatah al-Intifada). Abu Musa’s rebels managed to push the Arafat loyalists out of most of Lebanon despite the fact that Arafat himself traveled to Tripoli, in northern Lebanon, to rally his loyal Fatah fighters. Some 4,000 Arafat loyalists eventually accepted a Saudi-brokered deal by which they were evacuated on Greek ships flying the UN flag in December 1983.

Beyond the Abu Musa secession, tense polarization emerged within the PLO. On one side, pro-Syrian organizations (PFLP-GC, Saiqa, Palestinian Popular Struggle Front, Fatah al-Intifada) called for Arafat’s destitution, and even to form an alternative PLO. On the other side, a grouping (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Palestine Liberation Front, Palestinian Communist Party) emerged that opposed Arafat’s leadership and Palestinian-Jordanian coordination but was not willing to abandon the PLO or work directly under Syrian sponsorship. In March 1984, it constituted the Democratic Alliance and started a dialogue with Fatah leadership. The pro-Syrian coalition formed the National Alliance in July 1984, criticizing the dialogue conducted by the Democratic Alliance with Fatah.

In the meantime, and against the background of PLO political-military losses in the Lebanese arena, the mounting tensions with Syria, and internal dissensions (that erupted as the “war of the camps” in Lebanon between 1985 and 1987), Arafat attempted to preserve the PLO diplomatic status and its role in efforts related to settling the Palestine question. As soon as he withdrew from Tripoli at the end of December 1983, he traveled to Cairo and met with Egyptian president Husni Mubarak, thus ending Palestinian official boycott of Egypt since Anwar al-Sadat’s trip to Israel in November 1977. He also resumed attempts to coordinate with Jordan on the terms that would allow negotiations with Israel. The Arafat-Hussein rapprochement opened the way for convening the 17th session of the Palestine National Council (PNC) in Amman in November 1984, although both the Democratic Alliance and the National Alliance boycotted the meeting. Following this, in February 1985, Arafat reached an agreement with Hussein (“Palestinian-Jordanian Joint Action Agreement”) that included creating a joint Palestinian-Jordanian negotiating delegation for any future Arab-Israeli peace talks as well as the principle of establishing a confederation between Jordan and a Palestinian state.

The Jordanian-Palestinian agreement left a number of ambiguous points, mainly by not explicitly referring to Resolution 242, as Jordan had requested. The fact is that the approach to the resolution remained a sticking point that prevented any progress in the negotiation process, not only in terms of Palestinian-Jordanian relations, but mainly relative to a possible PLO-U.S. dialogue. While the PLO demanded complementing the resolution with a provision recognizing the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, the United States wanted an unconditional Palestinian acceptance of the resolution as a necessary (though not sufficient) step toward opening such dialogue, and without any U.S. commitment concerning the PLO participation in the negotiation process.  This impasse led to the failure of Jordanian-Palestinian talks at the beginning of 1986 and then to the Jordanian decision to terminate the talks. The end of the joint Jordanian-Palestinian action opened the way for the reconciliation between Fatah and the organizations not affiliated with Syria in September 1986 and then to the convening of the 18th session of the PNC in Algiers in April 1987.

Israel adamantly rejected giving the PLO any role in the negotiations over the future of the West Bank and Gaza, a point made clear when the Israeli air force bombed Arafat’s headquarters in Tunis in October 1985. Israel’s colonizing activities in the occupied territories brought the additional message to the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip that occupation would continue. The uprising that broke out in December 1987 showed that the situation could not be so easily contained.   

MF

 

Selected Bibliography

al-Hout, Bayan Nuwayhed. Sabra and Shatila: September 1982. London: Pluto Press, 2004.

Hussein bin Talal. “The Jordanian-Palestinian Peace Initiative: Mutual Recognition and Territory for Peace.Journal of Palestine Studies 14, no.4 (Summer 1985): 11–22.

Khalidi, Rashid. Under Siege: P.L.O. Decisionmaking during the 1982 War. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

Sayigh, Yezid. Armed Struggle and the State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 2000.

Schiff, Ze’ev, and Ehud Ya’ari. Israel’s Lebanon War. New York: Touchstone, 1985.

VIII. Palestinian Defeat, Divisions And Survival
E.g., 2018/12/14
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Palestinian Defeat, Divisions And Survival

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

The First Intifada And The Beginning Of Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

The Oslo Process And The Establishment Of The Palestinian Authority

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Diplomatic

Sharon Goes to Washington to Get Green Light on Lebanon War
25 May 1982

Violence

Assassination Attempt of Israeli Ambassador in London
3 June 1982

Violence

Israeli Aerial Bombardment and Palestinian Artillery Across the Lebanon-Israel Border
4 June 1982 - 5 June 1982

Diplomatic Violence

Security Council Resolution S/RES/508
5 June 1982

Violence

Israeli Invasion of Lebanon
6 June 1982 - 29 September 1982

Diplomatic Violence

Security Council Resolution S/RES/509
6 June 1982

Violence

Israeli Invasion Along the Western Axis
6 June 1982 - 14 June 1982

Violence

Israel Invades Along the Eastern Axis
6 June 1982 - 12 June 1982

Violence

Israel Invades Along the Central Axis
6 June 1982 - 11 June 1982

Diplomatic Violence

Draft Security Council Resolution S/15185
8 June 1982

Violence Diplomatic

The “Creeping” Cease-fire
10 June 1982 - 26 June 1982

Violence

Encirclement of Beirut
11 June 1982 - 20 June 1982

Violence

Battle of the Mountain
14 June 1982 - 26 June 1982

Diplomatic Violence

Israel and the US Demand PLO Withdrawal from Beirut and Lebanon
15 June 1982 - 27 June 1982

Diplomatic Violence

PLO Debates Withdrawal
16 June 1982 - 2 July 1982

Diplomatic Violence

Draft Security Council Resolution S/15255/Rev.2
26 June 1982

Violence

Israel Lays Siege to Beirut
27 June 1982 - 2 September 1982

Violence

Israeli Military Pressure on West Beirut
27 June 1982 - 11 July 1982

Diplomatic Violence

The PLO 11-Point Document
8 July 1982

Violence

Israeli Army Attempts to Conquer Beirut
21 July 1982 - 12 August 1982

Diplomatic Violence

PLO Accepts Habib’s Plan
29 July 1982 - 31 July 1982

Diplomatic

Agreement on Withdrawal Reached and Implemented
20 August 1982 - 2 September 1982

Diplomatic Policy/program

Reagan's "Talking Point" to Begin on Palestinian Issue
31 August 1982

Violence

Lebanon War Casualties
1 September 1982 - 11 October 1982

Policy/program Diplomatic

Reagan's Plan on the Palestinian Issue
1 September 1982

Diplomatic Policy/program

Israel Rejects the Reagan Plan
2 September 1982

Policy/program Diplomatic

The 12th Arab Summit Meeting in Fez Adopts the "Fez Initiative"
6 September 1982 - 9 September 1982

Violence

Assassination of Bashir Gemayel and Israeli Occupation of Beirut
14 September 1982 - 16 September 1982

Violence

Sabra and Shatila Massacres
16 September 1982 - 18 September 1982

Violence Diplomatic

Israel Withdraws from Beirut and the Multinational Force Returns
23 September 1982 - 29 September 1982

Diplomatic Policy/program

PLO and Jordan Agree on Idea of Palestinian-Jordanian Confederation
9 October 1982 - 10 November 1982

Institutional Policy/program

30th Zionist Congress Is Held in Jerusalem
7 December 1982 - 16 December 1982

Diplomatic

Israeli-Lebanese Negotiations
28 December 1982

Institutional Violence

Kahan Report on the Sabra-Shatila Massacres
7 February 1983 - 10 February 1983

Institutional Policy/program

16th Palestine National Council Is Held in Algiers
14 February 1983 - 22 February 1983

Colonization

Israeli Settlements in the West Bank
21 March 1983 - 11 April 1983

Diplomatic Policy/program

Failed Attempt of Palestinian-Jordanian Coordination
31 March 1983 - 8 April 1983

Diplomatic Legal

Israel-Lebanon 17 May Agreement
17 May 1983

Institutional Diplomatic

Scission within Fatah
18 May 1983 - 15 September 1983

Popular action

Reactions to Fatah Scission in Occupied Territories
26 June 1983 - 9 November 1983

Violence Colonization

Tension in Hebron
1 July 1983 - 30 July 1983

Diplomatic Colonization

Draft Security Council Resolution S/15895
2 August 1983

Institutional Institutional

PLO Central Council Meeting Is Held in Tunis
3 August 1983 - 7 August 1983

Violence

Ma'moun Meraish is Assassinated in Athens
20 August 1983

Biographical

Yitzhak Shamir Succeeds Menachem Begin as Prime Minister.
2 September 1983

Violence Diplomatic

Yasir Arafat in Tripoli, Lebanon, and then Cairo
16 September 1983 - 22 December 1983

Violence

Operations Against French and US Contingents in Beirut
23 October 1983

Sanctions

Israeli Measures Against Palestinian Universities
2 November 1983 - 30 July 1984

Diplomatic Policy/program

General Assembly Resolution 38/58
13 December 1983

Institutional

Jordanian Parliament Revived
9 January 1984 - 18 January 1984

Popular action

Palestinians in the Occupied Territories Oppose Reactivating the Jordanian Parliament
23 January 1984

Diplomatic

Palestinian-Jordanian Coordination for Peace Talks
26 February 1984 - 1 March 1984

Diplomatic

Secretary-General report (A/39/130-S/16409), Pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 38/58
13 March 1984

Institutional Policy/program

Palestinian Internal Polarization
27 March 1984 - 20 May 1984

Violence

Palestinians Hijack an Israeli Bus Toward Gaza
12 April 1984

Violence

Operation of Israeli Occupation Forces Against Ayn al-Hilwa
16 May 1984 - 18 May 1984

Institutional Policy/program

Fatah - Democratic Alliance Precarious Reconciliation
27 June 1984 - 2 September 1984

Colonization

Tal Rumayda Settlement in Hebron
8 August 1984

Popular action Violence

Commemorating the Sabra - Shatila Massacres
17 September 1984

Violence

Demolitions in the Jordan Valley
1 November 1984 - 11 November 1984

Institutional Diplomatic

17th Palestine National Council Is Held in Amman
22 November 1984 - 29 November 1984

Diplomatic

Palestinian-Jordanian Joint Action Agreement
11 February 1985 - 22 February 1985

Violence

Israeli Army Withdraws from Saida Region
16 February 1985

Policy/program Diplomatic

PLO Executive on Palestinian-Jordanian Joint Action Agreement
18 February 1985

Diplomatic Institutional

Attempts to Form a Jordanian-Palestinian Delegation
1 March 1985 - 1 September 1985

Institutional Policy/program

Palestinian National Salvation Front Is Formed in Damascus
25 March 1985

Diplomatic

The PLO, the US, and Resolution 242
15 May 1985

Violence

Battles of the Palestinian Camps in Lebanon
19 May 1985 - 7 April 1987

Diplomatic

Prisoner Exchange between Israel and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command
20 May 1985

Sanctions Popular action

Iron Fist Policy in the Occupied Territories
29 July 1985 - 4 August 1985

Diplomatic Policy/program

Emergency Arab Summit Meets in Casablanca
7 August 1985 - 9 August 1985

Diplomatic

Draft Security Council Resolution S/17459
13 September 1985

Violence

Israeli Planes Attack PLO Headquarters in Tunis
25 September 1985 - 1 October 1985

Violence

Achille Lauro Hijacked
7 October 1985 - 11 October 1985

Diplomatic Policy/program

Arafat's "Cairo Declaration" on Terrorism
7 November 1985

Diplomatic

US - Palestinian Meeting in Jerusalem
4 December 1985

Diplomatic

Breakdown of Jordanian-Palestinian Coordination
25 January 1986 - 1 April 1986

Diplomatic

Draft Security Council Resolution S/17769
30 January 1986

Violence

Assassination of Zafir al-Masri
2 March 1986 - 3 March 1986

Violence

Khaled Nazzal Assassinated in Athens
9 June 1986

Sanctions

Two Palestinian Newspapers Banned in Jerusalem
30 June 1986

Diplomatic

US - Palestinian Meeting in Jerusalem
29 July 1986

Legal

Israeli Law Prohibits Contact with PLO
6 August 1986

Institutional Policy/program

Fatah - DFLP - PCP Reconciliation: The Prague Declaration
6 September 1986

Violence

Munther Abu Ghazaleh Assassinated in Athens
21 October 1986

Sanctions

Israeli Repression in the Occupied Territories
4 December 1986 - 11 December 1986

Sanctions

Deportation of Muhammad Dahlan
13 December 1986 - 26 January 1987

Violence

Clashes in the Occupied Territories
9 February 1987 - 18 February 1987

Institutional

Elections in Gaza Professional Unions
21 February 1987

Popular action

Palestinian Hunger Strike in Israeli Prisons
25 March 1987 - 13 April 1987

Diplomatic

Hussein-Peres London Secret Agreement
11 April 1987

Sanctions

Detention of Faisal Husseini
12 April 1987 - 13 September 1987

Sanctions

Closure of Palestinian Universities
19 April 1987

Institutional Policy/program

18th Palestine National Council Is Held in Algiers
20 April 1987 - 25 April 1987

Sanctions

Israel Suspends Distribution of al-Sha'b in the Occupied Territories.
28 April 1987

Sanctions

Deportation of Marwan Barghouti and Khalil Achour
14 May 1987

Violence

Islamic Jihad Operations in Gaza
18 May 1987 - 30 November 1987

Sanctions Diplomatic

The Closure of PLO Offices in the US
16 September 1987 - 29 June 1988

Diplomatic Popular action

1st Visit of US Secretary George Shultz to the Region
17 October 1987 - 18 October 1987

Sanctions

al-Quds, a Nablus-Based Palestinian News Agency, Is Closed for Two Years.
25 October 1987

Sanctions

Closure of Bethlehem University
28 October 1987

Violence

Palestinian Hang-Glider Operation
25 November 1987

Institutional Policy/program

31st Zionist Congress Meets in Jerusalem
6 December 1987 - 10 December 1987