XI. The Aqsa Intifada and the End of an Era in Palestinian Politics

XI. The Aqsa Intifada and the End of an Era in Palestinian Politics

Period
XI. The Aqsa Intifada and the End of an Era in Palestinian Politics
28 September 2000 to 25 January 2006

Between 2000 and 2006, the Oslo process virtually collapsed. Palestinian-Israeli final status talks stalled, the second intifada erupted, and violent confrontations ensued, including the reinvasion by Israel of the territories under the control of the Palestinian Authority (PA). The new US administration under President George W. Bush conditioned its efforts toward a peace settlement on the cessation of violence, for which it held the Palestinians responsible, and at the same time it supported Israel’s positions on final status issues. Other significant events during this period include the death of long-time leader Yasir Arafat in November 2004, the election of Mahmud Abbas as his successor in January 2005, and the parliamentary electoral victory of the Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas, one year later. This signaled the end of an era in Palestinian politics that had lasted 35 years and the redrawing of the Oslo process in favor of increased Israeli unilateralism in the occupied territories.   

Two months after the collapse of the US-Israeli-Palestinian peace summit at Camp David, Israeli politician Ariel Sharon made a high-profile visit to Haram al-Sharif in Jerusalem on 28 September 2000. This visit by a Likud Party leader was widely viewed as provocative, made even worse  because Sharon was reviled for his role in the 1982 Lebanon War and the Sabra and Shatila massacre and was accompanied by hundreds of Israeli security forces. The visit triggered Palestinian popular demonstrations and clashes with Israeli security forces all over the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and in Palestinian towns in Israel. Israeli forces responded heavy-handedly and within a week, 70 Palestinians and 4 Israelis were killed.

The Palestinian uprising (known as al-Aqsa intifada), though triggered by Sharon’s provocation, appeared driven by several factors: the failure of final status negotiations; nonfulfillment by Israel of the Oslo interim requirements, such as the redeployment from most of the West Bank; expansion of the settlements; and, conversely, the success of Hizballah’s resistance in South Lebanon, which led to Israel’s withdrawal from Lebanon in May 2000.

During the last quarter of 2000, outgoing US president Bill Clinton tried to cool the situation down, mainly through setting a fact-finding committee on the Palestinian-Israeli confrontation (the “Mitchell Committee”). At the same time, he made a last attempt to continue the peace talks, presenting to both sides a bridging proposal (the “Clinton Parameters”) in late December. On 21 January 2001, Palestinian and Israeli negotiators started an intensive negotiation round in Taba, Egypt, and came the closest they had come to bridging the gaps between them, but ended their talks on 27 January, 10 days before the prime ministerial elections in Israel. A victorious Sharon replaced Ehud Barak as Israel’s prime minister and immediately he and President Bush put an effective end to the peace talks and set the stage for Israeli military escalation and diplomatic campaign against Arafat.

The intifada had already shifted in late November 2000 from mass demonstrations to shooting attacks by Palestinian activists (mainly by Fatah in the first stage) as a response to Israel’s harsh repression, and levels of violence varied during the following months. Israeli actions took the form of shelling PA administrative offices and security compounds, conducting incursions in areas under PA’s jurisdiction, closing off these areas, imposing curfews, carrying out targeted assassinations of militants, leveling houses, uprooting agricultural lands, and erecting hundreds of checkpoints to hinder Palestinians’ movement. Palestinian militants resorted to detonating road-side bombs, firing at Israeli soldiers and settlers, launching mortar attacks (mainly against Israeli military positions and settlements in and around the Gaza Strip), and, starting late May 2001, carrying out suicide bombings (principally by Hamas, followed by Fatah and Islamic Jihad).

The most serious (albeit short-lived) US attempt to distance itself from Israeli positions occurred immediately after the 9-11 attacks in the US. Seeking Islamic-Arab support against al-Qa‘ida in Afghanistan, President Bush appealed to Sharon several times between mid-September and mid-October 2001 for Israeli de-escalation and endorsed on 2 October, for the first time since taking office, the creation of a Palestinian state. However, on 17 October of, Israeli minister of tourism Rehavam Ze’evi was assassinated by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, in retaliation for the assassination (on 27 August) of Abu Ali Mustafa, the movement’s secretary-general, and the act gave Sharon the opportunity to reverse the trend toward re-legitimizing Arafat and to conduct destructive campaigns any time he would choose in the following years under the motto of fighting “Palestinian terrorism.”

Two days after a 27 March 2002 Hamas suicide bombing at a hotel in Netanya that killed dozens of Israeli civilians, Israel launched a massive invasion of most West Bank towns, villages, and refugee camps. Ground forces besieged Arafat’s headquarters in Ramallah, inflicted heavy damage on the Old City of Nablus, destroyed much of the Jenin refugee camp after a fierce battle in early April 2002, and ransacked PA offices. It withdrew from the Palestinian towns in early May but continued to maintain a presence around them and to carry out incursions. At the same time, the Israeli cabinet approved the building of a permanent barrier to separate Israel and a number of settlements from Palestinian communities. Depending on the location of the settlements and the nature of the terrain, the barrier was planned to run on certain sections along the 1949 Armistice Line, and on others to veer deep into the West Bank, effectively annexing large areas into Israel. (In July 2004, an advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice determined that the barrier violated international law.)

At the same time, the US administration, urged by its international partners and responding to the Arab Peace Initiative (proclaimed in Beirut in March 2002) acquiesced to the formation of what will be known as the Middle East Quartet (the US, Russia, the European Union, and the UN) and to revive the prospect of a diplomatic resolution. But it did this on its own terms. On 24 June 2002, Bush stated that the prerequisite for establishing an independent Palestinian state was “a new and different Palestinian leadership” with new institutions and new security arrangements. His speech, which was delivered after the United States stopped dealing with Arafat, constituted the basis of a Quartet plan called the “Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict” that was officially presented to the two sides at the end of April 2003 after much delay and foot-dragging. Sharon ambiguously accepted the road map and listed fourteen “reservations” that rendered it effectively meaningless.

Meanwhile, the Palestinian leadership, under pressure from the Quartet and also from the Fatah cadres, started the process of reform. In particular, Arafat was forced in February 2003 to agree to the creation of the position of PA prime minister, after Quartet representatives threatened that if the PA failed to do so before the expected US invasion of Iraq, the United States would give Israel a green light to oust the Palestinian leader. The Palestinian Legislative Council, with the PLO Central Council approval, amended the Basic Law in March, opening the way for the formation of a new cabinet under Mahmud Abbas as Prime Minister in April 2003. Frustrated with his inability to govern and, in particular, to control the PA security forces, Abbas resigned in September 2003. The following month, he was replaced as prime minister by Ahmad Qurai‘.  

Unwilling to implement the road map, Sharon started toward the end of 2003 to work on an alternative plan (disengagement from Gaza) that could appeal to the international community as an indication of progress while advancing Israeli strategic interests. In April 2004, in exchange for an Israeli unilateral disengagement from Gaza (withdrawal of Israeli forces and settlers from inside the Strip) and evacuation of four settlements north of the West Bank, President Bush officially assured Israel that he would foster a new Palestinian leadership; commit to Israel as a Jewish state; rule out the return of 1948 Palestinian refugees to their original homes in Israel (while holding out the possibility of settling them in a future Palestinian state); and reject any call for a return to the armistice lines of 1949 in light of “existing major Israeli population centers” in the West Bank. The disengagement (carried out in August–September 2005), combined with the construction of the separation barrier in the West Bank, marked an important step in Israel’s strategy to separate the Gaza Strip from the West Bank and to consolidate its control over the West Bank.

As for the situation on the ground between 2003 and 2005, Palestinian resistance continued in the West Bank, though weakened, and increased in the Gaza Strip. Responding to Egyptian mediation efforts, Palestinian organizations affirmed on several occasions their readiness for conditional cease-fires with Israel. However, Israel strengthened its hold on the West Bank through its sustained military operations and progressively shifted its escalatory steps to the Gaza Strip. It assassinated Hamas’s spiritual leader, Ahmad Yasin, in March 2004, and the group’s political leader, ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Rantisi, four weeks later. Arafat, who had been confined in his reduced compound for more than two years, fell victim to a mysterious illness in October 2004: he was evacuated from Ramallah and died in Paris on 11 November. Abbas thereupon became the fourth head of the PLO and was elected PA president on 9 January 2005.

With the passing of the charismatic leader of the Palestinian national movement, Palestinian society was exhausted from the violence of the second intifada, its brutal suppression by Israel, and the absence of any hope for a negotiated settlement. Under rules of the game now unilaterally defined by Israel (in the West Bank, at least), Abbas attempted, with some success, to obtain the organizations’ agreement to a truce with Israel and to reconstruct the PA institutions through appealing to international donors’ assistance and resorting to popular polls. Four rounds of municipal elections that were held between December 2004 and December 2005 showed a steady rise of support for Hamas among Palestinian constituents. The decision of Hamas to participate in legislative elections scheduled for January 2006, its conducting a coherent campaign in contrast with Fatah disarray, and finally its victory signaled the opening of a new page in Palestinian politics.

MF

 

Selected Bibliography

Aronson, Geoffrey. “Issues Arising from the Implementation of Israel’s Disengagement from the Gaza Strip.Journal of Palestine Studies 34, no.4 (Summer 2005): 49–63.

Enderlin, Charles. Shattered Dreams: The Failure of the Peace Process in the Middle East, 1992–2002. New York: Other Press, 2003.

Li, Darryl. “The Gaza Strip as Laboratory: Notes in the Wake of Disengagement.” Journal of Palestine Studies 35, no.2 (Winter 2006): 38–55.

Pressman, Jeremy. “The Second Intifada: Background and Causes of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.” Journal of Conflict Studies 22, no.2 (Fall 2003): 114–41.

Roy, Sara. “Praying with Their Eyes Closed: Reflections on the Disengagement from Gaza.Journal of Palestine Studies 34, no.4 (Summer 2005): 64–74.

Swisher, Clayton. The Truth about Camp David: The Untold Story about Arafat, Barak, Clinton, and the Collapse of the Middle East Peace Process. New York: Thunders’ Mouth Nation Books, 2004.

Usher, Graham. “Facing Defeat: The Intifada Two Years On.Journal of Palestine Studies 32, no.2 (Winter 2003): 21–40.

Usher, Graham. “The Palestinians after Arafat.Journal of Palestine Studies 34, no.3 (Spring 2005): 42–66.

XI. The Aqsa Intifada and the End of an Era in Palestinian Politics
E.g., 2018/12/14
E.g., 2018/12/14

The Aqsa Intifada and the End of an Era in Palestinian Politics

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

A Palestinian Authority Divided, Israeli Assaults on Gaza, and Peace Process Setbacks

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Violence Popular action

Ariel Sharon at al-Haram al-Sharif
28 September 2000

Popular action Violence

Start of the Second Intifada
29 September 2000 - 4 October 2000

Popular action

Arab and International Support of Palestinian Uprising
30 September 2000 - 7 October 2000

Diplomatic Violence

US Attempts at Easing Tension, but Confrontation Spikes
4 October 2000 - 12 October 2000

Diplomatic Violence

Security Council Resolution S/RES/1322
7 October 2000

Diplomatic Violence

Sharm al-Shaykh Summit
16 October 2000 - 18 October 2000

Violence

Israeli Retaliatory Strategy and First Signs of a "Militarized" Intifada
19 October 2000 - 7 November 2000

Diplomatic Legal

General Assembly Resolution A/RES/ES-10/7
20 October 2000

Diplomatic Violence

The Mitchell Committee of Fact-Finding on the Palestinian-Israeli Confrontation
7 November 2000 - 30 December 2000

Violence Sanctions

Toward a Protracted Confrontation
9 November 2000 - 22 December 2000

Institutional Biographical

Israeli Prime Minister Barak Resigns
9 December 2000

Diplomatic

Draft Security Council Resolution S/2000/1171
18 December 2000

Diplomatic

Resumption of Peace Talks; the Clinton "Proposals"
19 December 2000 - 23 December 2000

Violence Diplomatic

Palestinian-Israeli Clashes Abate
23 December 2000 - 6 February 2001

Policy/program

Israeli Idea of Security Fence (Separation Wall) Begins to Take Shape
26 December 2000 - 3 January 2001

Diplomatic

Israeli and Palestinian Response to the Clinton Proposals
28 December 2000 - 3 January 2001

Diplomatic

The Taba Talks
21 January 2001 - 27 January 2001

Violence Biographical

Ariel Sharon is Elected Prime Minister of Israel; Intifada Casualties Under Ehud Barak
6 February 2001

Diplomatic

Israel and the US Put Effective End to Peace Talks
7 February 2001 - 8 February 2001

Violence

Intense then Moderate Resurgence of Palestinian-Israeli Clashes
8 February 2001 - 7 March 2001

Violence

Operation Bronze and Escalation
7 March 2001 - 16 May 2001

Diplomatic Violence

Draft Security Council Resolution S/2001/270
27 March 2001 - 28 March 2001

Diplomatic Violence

Jordanian-Egyptian Proposal for a Cease-Fire and a Resumption of Talks
16 April 2001 - 27 April 2001

Diplomatic Violence

The Mitchell Report Is Issued
30 April 2001 - 15 May 2001

Violence Diplomatic

New Threshold Crossed with Suicide Bombing and Warplanes
18 May 2001 - 4 June 2001

Biographical

Death of Faisal Husseini
31 May 2001

Diplomatic Violence

The Tenet Cease-Fire Plan
11 June 2001 - 20 June 2001

Violence

Israel's "Efforts" to Provoke Escalation
4 July 2001 - 14 August 2001

Violence Sanctions

Israel Closes Orient House and Other Jerusalem Institutions
10 August 2001

Violence Popular action

Amid Escalation, Abu Ali Mustafa, PFLP Secretary-General, Is Assassinated
20 August 2001 - 10 September 2001

Diplomatic Popular action

UN World Conference Against Racism in Durban
31 August 2001 - 8 September 2001

Contextual Violence

The 9-11 Attacks on the US
11 September 2001

Violence Diplomatic

US and Palestinian Efforts to Stop Israeli Escalation
12 September 2001 - 16 October 2001

Violence Socio-Economic

Losses During the 1st Year of the Second Intifada
28 September 2001

Diplomatic Policy/program

President Bush Publicly Endorses the Creation of a Palestinian State
2 October 2001 - 15 October 2001

Violence

Assassination of Rehavam Ze'evi and its Immediate Aftermath
17 October 2001 - 25 October 2001

Diplomatic Policy/program

Timid Diplomatic Efforts
2 November 2001 - 19 November 2001

Violence Diplomatic

With the Assassination of Abu Hanud, Israeli-Palestinian Confrontation Reaches a New Level
20 November 2001 - 15 December 2001

Diplomatic Legal

Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention
5 December 2001

Diplomatic Violence

Draft Security Council Resolution S/2001/1199
14 December 2001

Diplomatic Sanctions

Another Timid Return to Diplomacy: a Peres-Qurai' Draft?
16 December 2001 - 27 December 2001

Violence

Karine A Arms Ship Is Captured and Arafat Is Isolated
3 January 2002 - 11 February 2002

Violence

Grave Escalation from Both Sides
9 January 2002 - 21 February 2002

Violence Diplomatic

An Uneven Race Between Diplomacy and Violence: Operation Colorful Journey
17 February 2002 - 26 March 2002

Diplomatic

Security Council Resolution S/RES/1397
12 March 2002

Diplomatic Policy/program

Arab Summit Meeting in Beirut Adopts Saudi Peace Initiative
27 March 2002 - 28 March 2002

Violence

Massive Israeli Invasion: Operation Defensive Shield
28 March 2002 - 10 May 2002

Violence

Invasion of Ramallah: The Siege of Arafat's Compound
29 March 2002 - 1 May 2002

Diplomatic Violence

Security Council Resolution S/RES/1402
30 March 2002

Violence

Invasion of Bethlehem: The Siege of the Church of the Nativity
1 April 2002 - 10 May 2002

Violence

Invasion of Jenin Camp: Fierce Battle
3 April 2002 - 19 April 2002

Violence

Invasion of Nablus: Fierce Resistance
3 April 2002 - 21 April 2002

Diplomatic Violence

US Response to the Israeli Invasion
4 April 2002 - 17 April 2002

Diplomatic Violence

Birth of the Middle East "Quartet"
10 April 2002

Policy/program Colonization

Israel Decides to Create Buffer Zones (Separation Wall)
14 April 2002 - 25 April 2002

Diplomatic Violence

Security Council Resolution S/RES/1405
19 April 2002

Violence Sanctions

Security on the Aftermath of Operation Defensive Shield
7 May 2002 - 5 June 2002

Institutional

Israeli and International Pressures for a PA Reform
7 May 2002 - 5 June 2002

Institutional

On the Road to Reform: First Palestinian Steps and Plans
15 May 2002 - 24 June 2002

Violence Sanctions

Triggered by a Suicide Bombing, Israel Raids West Bank Towns and Shells Arafat's Headquarters
5 June 2002 - 17 June 2002

Institutional Policy/program

34th Zionist Congress is Held in Jerusalem
17 June 2002 - 20 June 2002

Violence

Triggered by a Suicide Bombing, Israel Carries Out Operation Determined Path
18 June 2002 - 16 July 2002

Diplomatic Policy/program

George W. Bush's Major Speech on US Policy for the Middle East
24 June 2002

Violence Sanctions

Assassination of Salah Shihadeh and its Immediate Aftermath
22 July 2002 - 14 August 2002

Diplomatic

Toward a "Road Map" to Final Status?
13 August 2002 - 5 November 2002

Violence

Israeli Army Refocuses on Gaza Strip
19 August 2002 - 7 October 2002

Violence

Israeli Operation Matter of Time; Siege on Arafat Tightened; Protests All Over Occupied Territories
18 September 2002 - 29 September 2002

Diplomatic Violence

Security Council Resolution S/RES/1435
24 September 2002

Violence Socio-Economic

Losses on the Two-Year Anniversary of the Second Intifada
28 September 2002

Violence

Israel Unable to Quell Palestinian Attacks
10 October 2002 - 5 January 2003

Contextual

Israeli Leaders Push for an American War Against Iraq
16 October 2002 - 9 February 2003

Violence Sanctions

Israel Closes all West Bank District Coordination Offices
3 December 2002 - 11 January 2003

Violence

Deepest Israeli Incursion in the Gaza Strip
24 January 2003 - 27 January 2003

Institutional

The Likud Wins the Elections for the Knesset
28 January 2003

Institutional

Arafat Accepts the Creation of a Prime Minister Position
9 February 2003 - 6 March 2003

Violence

Military Confrontation Escalates Again in Gaza
15 February 2003 - 8 March 2003

Institutional Legal

PLO Central Council Meeting Is Held in Ramallah
8 March 2003 - 9 March 2003

Institutional Legal

The PLC Discusses and Approves Amendments to the Basic Law Creating the Post of Prime Minister
10 March 2003 - 18 March 2003

Contextual Sanctions

The US War Against Iraq; Security Developments in the West Bank and Gaza
17 March 2003 - 9 April 2003

Institutional Policy/program

Mahmoud Abbas Forms the Palestinian Government
19 March 2003 - 29 April 2003

Diplomatic Institutional

US formally Presents Israel and the PA with the Road Map
30 April 2003

Violence Sanctions

Heightened Violence Despite Diplomacy
1 May 2003 - 29 June 2003

Diplomatic

The PLO Approves the Road Map
3 May 2003 - 11 May 2003

Diplomatic

With US Blessing, Ambivalent Israeli Acceptance of the "Steps Set out in the Road Map"
4 May 2003 - 25 May 2003

Diplomatic

Abbas and Sharon Meet in Jerusalem
17 May 2003 - 29 May 2003

Diplomatic

Aqaba Summit: Bush, Abdullah, Abbas, and Sharon Meet
4 June 2003

Diplomatic

Unilateral Cease-Fire Announcement and Gaza First Arrangements
21 June 2003 - 2 July 2003

Violence

The Cease-Fire: Toward Failure
1 July 2003 - 12 August 2003

Violence

The Cease-Fire Is Over
19 August 2003 - 25 August 2003

Violence Sanctions

Ahmad Yasin and Yasir Arafat in the Line of Fire
4 September 2003 - 30 September 2003

Institutional

Mahmoud Abbas Resigns as Prime Minister
6 September 2003

Institutional

Ahmad Qurai' Is Appointed PM: A Nine-Week Ministerial Crisis
7 September 2003 - 12 November 2003

Diplomatic Violence

Draft Security Council Resolution S/2003/891
16 September 2003

Diplomatic Legal

General Assembly Resolution A/RES/ES-10/12
19 September 2003

Violence Socio-Economic

Losses on the Three-Year Anniversary of the Second Intifada
28 September 2003

Sanctions

Israel Adopts Plan for Second Phase of Separation Wall
1 October 2003

Violence

Extending Retaliation to Syrian Territory; Operation Root Canal in Rafah
4 October 2003 - 30 October 2003

Diplomatic Popular action

The Geneva "Private" Initiative
12 October 2003 - 1 December 2003

Diplomatic Colonization

Draft Security Council Resolution S/2003/980
14 October 2003

Diplomatic Violence

General Assembly Resolution A/RES/ES-10/13
21 October 2003

Diplomatic

Violence Abates to a Moderate Level
1 November 2003 - 17 December 2003

Diplomatic Policy/program

Security Council Resolution S/RES/1515
19 November 2003

Diplomatic Policy/program

Palestinian Peace Gestures
1 December 2003 - 7 January 2004

Diplomatic Legal

General Assembly Resolution A/RES/ES-10/14
8 December 2003

Diplomatic Policy/program

Sharon's Speech on Unilateral Disengagement Plan
18 December 2003

Violence

Timing New Israeli Escalation with Sharon's Speech on Disengagement Plan
18 December 2003 - 31 January 2004

Policy/program Colonization

Sharon's Interview on Gaza-Centered Disengagement Plan
12 January 2004 - 2 February 2004

Violence Sanctions

Timing Another Israeli Escalation with Sharon's Interview on Gaza-Centered Disengagement Plan
2 February 2004 - 13 March 2004

Violence Popular action

Israel Launches Operation Continuous Story; Assassination of Ahmad Yasin
14 March 2004 - 5 April 2004

Diplomatic Violence

Draft Security Council Resolution S/2004/240
25 March 2004

Diplomatic Policy/program

Bush's Letter to Sharon on the Disengagement Plan
14 April 2004

Diplomatic Policy/program

Sharon's Letter to Bush on Disengagement Plan
14 April 2004

Violence

Timing Another Israeli Escalation with Sharon's Plan; Assassination of Abd al-Aziz Rantisi
15 April 2004 - 29 April 2004

Diplomatic

Reactions to Bush's Assurances to Sharon RE Disengagement Plan
15 April 2004 - 6 May 2004

Violence

In Spite of Israeli Raids, Palestinian Military Resistance Remains High in Gaza
2 May 2004 - 13 May 2004

Diplomatic Legal

General Assembly Resolution A/Res/58/292
6 May 2004

Violence Sanctions

Widening Philadelphi (Salahuddin) Route: Operation Rainbow
16 May 2004 - 24 May 2004

Diplomatic Violence

Security Council Resolution S/RES/1544
19 May 2004

Diplomatic Institutional

An Egyptian Security Plan for the PA
24 May 2004 - 6 July 2004

Policy/program

Israeli Cabinet Ambiguously Endorses Sharon's Disengagement Plan
6 June 2004

Sanctions

Life Sentence Against Marwan Barghouti
6 June 2004

Institutional Policy/program

Annual Zionist General Council (WZO) Meets in Jerusalem
18 June 2004

Violence

Operation Full Court Press in Nablus
23 June 2004 - 19 August 2004

Violence

Operation Active Shield in Gaza; Assassination of Militants in Gaza and West Bank
27 June 2004 - 5 August 2004

Institutional Popular action

The Palestinian Leadership Faces an Internal Crisis and Risks Loss of Control
7 July 2004 - 27 July 2004

Legal

The ICJ Advisory Opinion on the Separation Wall
9 July 2004

Diplomatic Legal

General Assembly Resolution A/RES/ES-10/15
20 July 2004

Colonization Diplomatic

Settlement Activity in Spite of Road Map
2 August 2004 - 23 August 2004

Violence

Israeli-Palestinian Military Confrontation as Routine
18 August 2004 - 27 September 2004

Violence Socio-Economic

Losses on the Four-Year Anniversary of the Second Intifada
28 September 2004

Violence Sanctions

Operation Days of Penitence
29 September 2004 - 15 October 2004

Diplomatic Violence

Draft Security Council Resolution S/2004/783
5 October 2004

Biographical

Arafat's Sudden Illness and Death
12 October 2004 - 12 November 2004

Institutional Biographical

Smooth and Constitutional Transition in PLO and PA Leadership
11 November 2004 - 1 December 2004

Violence Sanctions

Israeli Attacks Resume: Operations Orange Iron, Violet Iron
17 November 2004 - 28 December 2004

Institutional Biographical

Palestinian Presidential Elections: Mahmoud Abbas Is Elected
1 December 2004 - 15 January 2005

Institutional

First Round of Municipal Elections
23 December 2004 - 27 January 2005

Violence

Israel Launches Operation Eastern Step
8 January 2005 - 17 January 2005

Policy/program

Palestinian Efforts to Stop Anti-Israeli Attacks: An Informal One-Month Truce
17 January 2005 - 26 January 2005

Diplomatic

Abbas-Sharon Summit in Sharm al-Shaykh
8 February 2005

Diplomatic Violence

Resumption of Israeli-Palestinian Security Coordination
15 February 2005 - 30 April 2005

Institutional Biographical

New Palestinian Cabinet under Ahmad Qurai'
24 February 2005

Diplomatic Institutional

London Meeting on Supporting the Palestinian Authority
1 March 2005

Diplomatic Institutional

US Day-to-Day Involvement in Palestinian-Related Security Matters and in the Disengagement Plan
10 March 2005 - 30 June 2005

Policy/program Institutional

Palestinian Dialogue Conference Held in Cairo
15 March 2005 - 17 March 2005

Colonization

Major Construction Plan in Ma'ale Adumim
21 March 2005 - 6 April 2005

Diplomatic Socio-Economic

James Wolfensohn Appointed to Follow Economic-Related Disengagement Matters
14 April 2005 - 20 June 2005

Institutional

Second Round of Municipal Elections
5 May 2005

Diplomatic Institutional

Mahmoud Abbas's First Visit to White House as PA President
25 May 2005

Violence

Palestinian Truce Commitment at Risk
18 June 2005 - 21 July 2005

Violence Colonization

Disengagement: Evacuation of Settlers
8 August 2005 - 22 August 2005

Policy/program Diplomatic

Disengagement: Evacuation of Troops; The Case of Gaza-Egypt Border
15 August 2005 - 21 September 2005

Policy/program Popular action

Disengagement: The Case of Gaza-Egypt Crossing in Rafah
7 September 2005 - 17 September 2005

Popular action

Disengagement: Celebrations in Gaza
12 September 2005 - 24 September 2005

Violence

Ongoing Israeli Raids: Operation First Rain
23 September 2005 - 2 October 2005

Violence Socio-Economic

Losses on the Five-Year Anniversary of the Second Intifada
28 September 2005

Institutional Legal

Third Round of Municipal Elections
29 September 2005

Institutional

Palestinian Legislative Elections: Parties and Factions Sign a Code of Conduct
17 October 2005

Violence

Israel Launches Operation Starting All Over Again
24 October 2005 - 30 October 2005

Diplomatic Socio-Economic

Post Disengagement: Agreement on Movement and Access
15 November 2005

Diplomatic Socio-Economic

Post Disengagement: Agreed Principles for Rafah Crossing
15 November 2005 - 23 November 2005

Institutional Legal

Palestinian Legislative Elections: Fatah's Confused Preparation
25 November 2005 - 28 December 2005

Violence

After Ongoing Israeli Military Activities, A Surge in Violence
27 November 2005 - 15 December 2005

Institutional Legal

Fourth Round of Municipal Elections
15 December 2005

Institutional

Palestinian Legislative Elections: Registered Party Slates
18 December 2005

Violence Sanctions

Operation Blue Skies and Continuing Escalation
22 December 2005 - 23 January 2006

Biographical

After a Massive Stroke, Sharon Is Replaced by Ehud Olmert as Acting PM
4 January 2006

Institutional

Palestinian Legislative Elections: At the Polls
25 January 2006